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DUE COSE A MARCHIONNE . ll Manifesto EDITORIALE - PIERGIOVANNI ALLEVA

DUE COSE A MARCHIONNE
EDITORIALE - PIERGIOVANNI ALLEVA





Il comunicato con cui la Fiat ha annunciato da una parte che si adeguerà alla sentenza della Corte Costituzionale, consentendo alla Fiom di formare le Rsa con piena funzione dei diritti sindacali e dall'altra che auspica l'approvazione di una legge per la rappresentanza e rappresentatività sindacale può essere considerato una pietra miliare: punto di arrivo, dunque, ma anche di partenza.
La Fiom può certo andare orgogliosa per aver dato l'impulso decisivo in direzione di una legge che regoli la materia. Ma proprio per questo è opportuno e necessario individuare da subito alcuni «punti caldi» di un futuro testo legislativo.
1) È stato conquistato il principio oggi sancito anche dall'accordo 28 giugno 2011 che rappresentatività e potere negoziale sono inscindibili: non potrà più accadere che il sindacato più rappresentativo resti escluso dal negoziato e che si pretenda che un contratto di «minoranza» valga per tutti i lavoratori di un'azienda. Ma attenzione a non cadere ora nell'errore opposto e varare così una previsione legislativa che renda onnipotente l'associazione sindacale maggioritaria stabilendo, ad esempio, che il contratto nazionale o aziendale stipulato dalla maggioranza dei sindacati sia obbligatorio per tutti i lavoratori, anche iscritti a sindacati dissenzienti. Questo sarebbe giuridicamente impossibile per i contratti nazionali senza prima cambiare l'articolo 39 seconda parte della Costituzione, mentre per i contratti aziendali sarebbe comunque un errore immotivato da cui ad esempio si è tenuto lontano l'accordo del 28 giugno. I commi 4 e 5 hanno stabilito nella sostanza che una valenza generale dell'accordo aziendale deve far capo comunque alla partecipazione di ogni lavoratore: o in quanto elettore Rsu se è la Rsu a firmare l'accordo aziendale, o in quanto votante in referendum confermativo se sono state alcune Rsa a concludere l'accordo. E così anche per il contratto collettivo nazionale di lavoro l'approvazione referendaria potrà essere - comunque previo ritocco della previsione costituzionale - la giustificazione finale vera dell'efficacia generale. 
2) Il diritto di sciopero non può essere messo in discussione o limitato dall'efficacia generale e dall'esigibilità degli accordi. Il diritto di sciopero resta un diritto pubblico costituzionale di libertà dell'individuo che si muove su un piano diverso da quello degli obblighi discendenti da un contratto ed è molto simile, per intendersi, al diritto di esternazione o manifestazione del pensiero. 
Se dunque il dottor Marchionne pensa che dalla legge che ora auspica possa discendere un nuovo scenario autoritario ovvero una ricetta per la quale basterebbe che una o più Rsa abbia una maggioranza per applicare il contratto da loro firmato a tutti i lavoratori e poter reprimere disciplinarmente eventuali dissidenti scioperanti è opportuno sappia che su quella strada troverebbe ancora l'opposizione fermissima dei sindacati, dei politici e dei giuristi che credono davvero nella democrazia sindacale
http://www.ilmanifesto.it/area-abbonati/in-edicola/manip2n1/20130903/manip2pg/01/manip2pz/345238/

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